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Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) in the Energy Generation and End-use Sectors in Sri Lanka Project is executed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Sri Lanka Sustainable Energy Authority (SLSEA) and the Climate Change Secretariat of Sri Lanka (CCS) to support appropriate climate change mitigation actions in the energy generation and end-use sectors as part of the initiatives to achieve the voluntary GHG mitigation targets of Sri Lanka and to develop a robust, transparent and functional NAMA framework along with clear inventory and Monitoring, Reporting, and Verification (MRV) system with supporting governance and oversight in Sri Lanka that will systematically quantify Green House Gas (GHG) savings and benefits of the mitigation interventions using a bottom up approach to aggregate from the provincial and sub-sector levels to the national and sectors level. Furthermore, such a transparent framework is expected to open up opportunities to access regional and international climate funding.


RMA was selected as the local consultant of the international consulting firm appointed by UNDP for the project, Carbon Limits of Norway (CL), to carryout the following four activities.


  • Development of Provincial/Sectorial and National Level Data Management System
  • Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) Analysis
  • Test and Verify MRV Framework for the Three Pilot Projects
  • Establishing NAMA Institutional Set-up and NAMA Registry

The objective of the study was to examine the variables driving the demand for electricity in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and to assess options to manage demand with a view to improving the financial performance of Saudi Electricity Company.

The study developed an econometric model of the demand for electricity in the Kingdom, on the basis of actual performance, and used the model along with the official forecast of population and estimated economic growth, to forecast demand for electricity. Impact to the demand for electricity with different demand side management initiatives were analyzed. A dispatch model was developed to dispatch both current and upcoming power plants according to the merit order. With this approach necessity of upcoming power plants were analyzed for the years 2015, 2020 and 2025.

RMA hosted the editorial team of the new Sri Lanka Energy Audit Manual (4 volumes, 800 pages), to convert the contributions of individual authors into an attractive, easy to read manual. RMA energy efficiency experts reviewed the entire manual, and prepared the supplementary information, improved on the charts and diagrams, and prepared a camera-ready version of the manual. This manual was subsequently used in three energy auditor training courses in Sri Lanka, to train 90 energy auditors. The manual continues to be widely used by energy efficiency specialists in Sri Lanka as a ready reference.

Working together with MECADOS Energy Markets, RMA provides technical and regulatory support to establish new rules and regulations, to streamline the licensing of electricity system operators, authorized persons to design and implement electricity distribution systems, labeling of appliances for energy efficiency, and to develop a system of evaluation for proposals from private entities to generate electricity in various islands.


This project is to build capacity with the Public Utilities Commission of Sri Lanka (PUCSL) and the Transmission/Distribution Licensees to implement tariff and other regulatory measures, since the implementation of the new regulatory regime under the Sri Lanka Electricity Act 2009. RMA provides counterpart services and hands-on support to PUCSL in the development and implementation of the Tariff Methodology, other allowed charges, revenue filing by licensees and analysis, support for conducting public consultations, development of end-use customer tariffs, development of codes for retail services, distribution and grid operations. The work also includes the development of a tariff reform and subsidy rebalancing road map to return the loss-making power industry to profitability by year 2015. RMA staff developed Distribution and Grid codes for Sri Lanka.

RMA’s senior consultant conducted an analysis and developed the lessons learned on the Vietnam’s System Efficiency Improvement, Equitization and Renewable (SEIER) project. The project aim was to develop or rehabilitate small community based renewable energy projects. Also conducted an assessment of the progress on the Small Power Development (SPD) program in Vietnam, identifying the gaps, information and regulatory requirements to further accelerate the SPD projects. Conducted a 10-day visit for a 15-member delegation from Vietnam to Sri Lanka, to study Sri Lanka’s small power development program, with deep insight into the issues related to licensing, resource allocation, pricing, and technical issues of the program.

Working on the invitation by the Ministry of Power and Energy in Sri Lanka (on a honorary basis), senior consultant of RMA played a lead role in a Working Group to review the policy of pricing small power developer inputs to the national grid. Conducted numerous scenario analyses under avoided cost-based and technology-based tariff options, and developed reports, analysed documents and presentations. Conducted many stakeholder seminars over 2007-9, including those for investors/developers, to discuss optional pricing policies and results of calculations. Analysed the tariff impacts on utility finances and impacts on customers. Sri Lanka has since moved, in 2008, from the previously avoided-cost based pricing policy to a technology-specific, cost-reflective, tiered tariff policy, and currently experiences an accelerated development of renewable energy-based small power developments.

This project preparatory technical assistance was to formulate the next ADB loan for the Sri Lanka Energy Sector, consisting of transmission, distribution, renewable energy and energy efficiency sub-projects, amounting to an estimated investment of USD 120 million. In association with AECOM of New Zealand, RMA provided expert assessment of transmission options and distribution strengthening requirements, rural electrification project formulation, requirements for distribution strengthening for the absorption of renewable energy to the national grid, and assessment of other renewable energy and energy efficiency interventions required. RMA successfully prepared the application for the Clean Energy Finance Partnership Facility of Japan/ADB, to finance a DSM pilot project in lighting, an appliance testing laboratory to launch the energy efficiency appliance labelling regulations, and for conducting of energy audit training. In parallel, the ADB loan project includes a credit line for the rehabilitation of micro-hydro projects in estates for grid connection under net metering rules recently announced by Sri Lanka.

The project formulated by the joint AECOM-RMA team has since been approved by ADB and is presently being implemented in Sri Lanka.

As the consultant of JICA for its energy efficiency Technical Assistance (TA) program to the Sri Lankan Government, J-Power engaged RMA to carry out a baseline survey in 2008 at the commencement of the TA program. The survey included a national level energy intensity analysis, industrial benchmarking, appliance market energy efficiency status and the status of Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) operating in the country. Once the national level energy efficiency baseline was established, in 2009 and 2010, surveys and analyses were carried out to identify the effect of the specific activities carried out within the TA program to improve the energy efficiency of the country. In addition to these surveys and analyses, the impact of demand side management on the power system, especially on the system load curve, was studied with load forecast done for three years ahead.

RMA’s senior consultants worked as a part of the international team to assist the Tanzania Ministry of Energy and Minerals (MEM) and the Energy and Water Utilities Regulatory Commission (EWURA) to develop and establish the pricing policy for grid connected and mini-grid based small power plants that use renewable energy, and to develop the technical guidelines for grid connection of embedded generators. Conducted several seminars and workshops in Tanzania for developers, utility engineers, ministry officials and regulatory staff, to discuss optional tariff setting mechanisms, and to present the proposed tariffs and technical guidelines. The policies, pricing methodology and technical guidelines developed by the RMA consultants have since been implemented in Tanzania.